Brain Injury

Brain Injury

Brain injury is a broad term used to describe an injury that occurs to the scalp, skull, brain, brain tissue and blood vessels in the head. It is an injury that can leaves long term neurological deficits. A brain injury is non-degenerative.

There are two main types of brain injury:


An external force damages the brain e.g. a road traffic accident, a fall or an assault


An internal influences causes damage e.g. a bleed or “Stroke”, lack of oxygen to the brain or metabolic dysfunction

Brain injuries can be categorised into mild, moderate and severe and the severity and type of symptoms experienced can vary from survivor to survivor.

Injuries can leave people with physical, cognitive, speech, personality and psycho-social functioning problems depending on where the damage in the brain has occurred.

Brain Anatomy

The brain is divided into two halves or the right and the left “hemispheres”. The right hemisphere controls the movement of the left side of the body and our spatial skills. The left hemisphere controls the movement of the  right side of the body and our language skills.

The two hemispheres can then be divided into 4 lobes.

The Frontal Lobe is responsible for thinking, planning, problem solving, behaviour and personality. Damage to this lobe can lead to problems with control of our emotions and impulsivity.

The Temporal Lobe is responsible for our memories, understanding and language. Damage to this lobe can lead to problems with hearing and language comprehension.

The Parietal Lobe is responsible for organising information from our different senses. Damage to this lobe can lead to problems with making sense of the world around us. It can cause difficulties with perception and spatial relationships. It can cause reduce sensation of a limb and lead neglect of the limb.

The Occipital Lobe has a role in our visual field information.

Having  a brain injury is life changing but the correct Physiotherapy treatment can help to address problems with:

  • Mobility
  • Balance
  • coordination
  • Spasticity
  • Weakness or paralysis
  • Ataxia
  • Alterations in sensation
  • Fatigue
  • Cardio-vascular de-conditioning

At Neurological Physiotherapy our therapists are specialists in neurology and understand how brain injury can effect you and your daily functioning. We will assess and tailor treatment to your abilities, and set goals together that are meaningful to you. Home exercise programmes can be created to allow you to build on the skills learnt in your physiotherapy sessions at home. If appropriate we can work with your family and carers to advice on strategies to help support your independence. Through continued assessment and treatment we can refer you to other services and local links that may be helpful to you in achieving your goals.

If you require other professionals to further support your progress we can refer you into other services e.g. Speech and Language therapy, Occupational Therapy, Hydrotherapy, Orthotics, Psychology.

Useful links and information


Stockport Headway group- The Heaton Centre, Thornfield Road,
Stockport. ( 0794 707 5442-Network co-ordinator).







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